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1514 Torrent ((FREE))


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1514 Torrent



This document applies to the first version (i.e. version 1.0) of the BitTorrent protocol specification. Currently, this applies to the torrent file structure, peer wire protocol, and the Tracker HTTP/HTTPS protocol specifications. As newer revisions of each protocol are defined, they should be specified on their own separate pages, not here.


The tracker is an HTTP/HTTPS service which responds to HTTP GET requests. The requests include metrics from clients that help the tracker keep overall statistics about the torrent. The response includes a peer list that helps the client participate in the torrent. The base URL consists of the "announce URL" as defined in the metainfo (.torrent) file. The parameters are then added to this URL, using standard CGI methods (i.e. a '?' after the announce URL, followed by 'param=value' sequences separated by '&').


As mentioned above, the list of peers is length 50 by default. If there are fewer peers in the torrent, then the list will be smaller. Otherwise, the tracker randomly selects peers to include in the response. The tracker may choose to implement a more intelligent mechanism for peer selection when responding to a request. For instance, reporting seeds to other seeders could be avoided.


By convention most trackers support another form of request, which queries the state of a given torrent (or all torrents) that the tracker is managing. This is referred to as the "scrape page" because it automates the otherwise tedious process of "screen scraping" the tracker's stats page.


The scrape URL may be supplemented by the optional parameter info_hash, a 20-byte value as described above. This restricts the tracker's report to that particular torrent. Otherwise stats for all torrents that the tracker is managing are returned. Software authors are strongly encouraged to use the info_hash parameter when at all possible, to reduce the load and bandwidth of the tracker.


The initiator of a connection is expected to transmit their handshake immediately. The recipient may wait for the initiator's handshake, if it is capable of serving multiple torrents simultaneously (torrents are uniquely identified by their infohash). However, the recipient must respond as soon as it sees the info_hash part of the handshake (the peer id will presumably be sent after the recipient sends its own handshake). The tracker's NAT-checking feature does not send the peer_id field of the handshake.


The super-seed feature in S-5.5 and on is a new seeding algorithm designed to help a torrent initiator with limited bandwidth "pump up" a large torrent, reducing the amount of data it needs to upload in order to spawn new seeds in the torrent.


This method has resulted in much higher seeding efficiencies, by both inducing peers into taking only the rarest data, reducing the amount of redundant data sent, and limiting the amount of data sent to peers which do not contribute to the swarm. Prior to this, a seed might have to upload 150% to 200% of the total size of a torrent before other clients became seeds. However, a large torrent seeded with a single client running in super-seed mode was able to do so after only uploading 105% of the data. This is 150-200% more efficient than when using a standard seed.


This extension is to allow for the tracking of peers downloading torrents without the use of a standard tracker. A peer implementing this protocol becomes a "tracker" and stores lists of other nodes/peers which can be used to locate new peers.


There are at least two specification for how to combine a torrent download with a HTTP download. The first standard, implemented by BitTornado is quite easy to implement in the client, but is intrusive on the HTTP in that it requires a script handling requests on the server side. i.e. A plain HTTP server that just serves plain files isn't enough. The benfits is that the script can be more abuse resistant. This specification is found here: -spec.txt or as BEP-17.


The second specification requires slightly more from the client, but downloads from plain HTTP servers. It is specified here: or as BEP-19. It has been implemented by GetRight, libtorrent, Mainline, BitComet, Vuze.


This is a protocol for exchanging extension information and was derived from an early version of azureus' extension protocol. It adds one message for exchanging arbitrary handshake information including defined extension messages, mapping extensions to specific message IDs. It is documented here: _protocol.html and is implemented at least by libtorrent, uTorrent, Mainline, Transmission, Azureus and BitComet.


Albrecht Durer (1471 - 1528) was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg. His still-famous works include the Apocalypse woodcuts, Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in his Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514), which has been the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation. His watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium. Durer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists, have secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatise which involve principles of mathematics, perspective and ideal proportions.


Kazimierz's youngest synagogue is arguably its most spectacular today. Built in 1850-52, when Kraków was under Austro-Hungarian occupation, the synagogue's design by Ignacy Hercok is fashioned after the Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna (hence the name), which was destroyed on Kristallnacht. Though the exterior is typical of the Moorish Revival style popular during that time, the interior decoration uniquely incorporates many Polish folk motifs with the Moorish patterns. Heavily laden in gold leaf, the gleaming interior is absolutely worth the price of admission.Used as a warehouse and stables during Nazi occupation, the synagogue survived the war after which regular services were even held into the mid-1980s. In the late-1990s a torrent of private donations poured in to restore the synagogue to its prewar splendour. Work was completed in 2000, and today the gilded interior play host to occassional concerts and religious ceremonies, most notably during the annual Jewish Culture Festival each summer.


Winter temperatures are likely to drop to below freezing in highland areas of Yemen and rain brought in by southwest winds can fall in heavy torrents, leading to flooding. Many of the 530,000 displaced people living in these areas are in makeshift shelters with no insulation or weatherproofing. 350c69d7ab


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