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Graph Theory Tutorials Point Pdf Free


Learn Graph Theory with Free PDF Tutorials from Tutorials Point




Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that studies the properties and applications of graphs, which are structures that consist of a set of vertices and a set of edges that connect pairs of vertices. Graphs can be used to model many phenomena in science, engineering, social sciences, and more.




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In this article, you will learn the basics of graph theory, such as the types of graphs, their properties, trees, graph traversability, and the concepts of coverings, coloring, and matching. You will also learn how to use graphs to solve problems and analyze data.


The best part is that you can download free PDF tutorials from Tutorials Point, which is a website that provides online tutorials on various topics. These tutorials are written in a reader-friendly style and cover the fundamentals of graph theory in a clear and concise way.


What is a Graph?




A graph G is a pair (V,E), where V is a set of vertices (also called nodes) and E is a set of edges (also called links) that connect pairs of vertices. Each edge e in E can be represented by an ordered pair (u,v), where u and v are vertices in V. The order of the pair matters if the graph is directed, meaning that the edge has an orientation from one vertex to another. If the graph is undirected, meaning that the edge has no orientation, then the order of the pair does not matter and we can write e as u,v.


For example, the following graph G has V = a,b,c,d,e,f and E = a,b,a,c,b,d,c,d,c,e,d,e,e,f:


The size of a graph G is the number of vertices n = V and the order of G is the number of edges m = E. The minimum possible order is 0 (empty graph) and the maximum possible order is n(n-1)/2 (complete graph) for undirected graphs and n(n-1) (complete digraph) for directed graphs. The density of G is the ratio of edges in G to the maximum possible number of edges: 2m/n(n-1) for undirected graphs and m/n(n-1) for directed graphs.


What are the Types of Graphs?




There are many types of graphs that have different properties and applications. Here are some common types of graphs:


  • A simple graph is a graph that has no loops (edges that connect a vertex to itself) or multiple edges (more than one edge between two vertices).



  • A multigraph is a graph that may have loops or multiple edges.



  • A pseudograph is a graph that may have loops and multiple edges.



  • A weighted graph is a graph that assigns a numerical value (weight) to each edge.



  • A bipartite graph is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint sets such that every edge connects a vertex from one set to a vertex from another set.



  • A planar graph is a graph that can be drawn on a plane without any edges crossing each other.



  • A regular graph is a graph where every vertex has the same degree (number of adjacent vertices).



  • A connected graph is a graph where there is a path (sequence of adjacent edges) between any two vertices.



  • A disconnected graph is a graph that is not connected.



  • A tree is a connected graph that has no cycles (closed paths).



  • A forest is a disjoint union of trees.



How to Traverse a Graph?




To traverse a graph means to visit all the vertices and edges of the graph in a systematic way. There are different ways to traverse a graph, depending on the purpose and the type of the graph. Here are some common methods of graph traversal:


  • Euler's path and Euler's circuit are methods of traversing a graph that use each edge exactly once. A graph is traversable if it has an Euler's path or circuit. A connected graph has an Euler's path if and only if it has exactly two vertices with odd degree. A connected graph has an Euler's circuit if and only if it has no vertices with odd degree.



  • Hamiltonian path and Hamiltonian cycle are methods of traversing a graph that use each vertex exactly once. A graph is Hamiltonian if it has a Hamiltonian path or cycle. There is no simple criterion to determine whether a graph is Hamiltonian or not, but some necessary and sufficient conditions are known for some special classes of graphs.



  • Breadth-first search (BFS) and depth-first search (DFS) are methods of traversing a graph that use a queue and a stack, respectively, to keep track of the vertices to be visited next. BFS visits all the vertices that are at the same distance from the starting vertex before moving to the next level, while DFS visits all the vertices that are reachable from the current vertex before backtracking. Both methods can be used to find connected components, shortest paths, cycles, and other properties of graphs.



How to Cover, Color, and Match a Graph?




Besides traversing a graph, there are other ways to manipulate a graph to achieve certain goals or optimize certain criteria. Some of these methods are covering, coloring, and matching, which are explained below:


  • Covering a graph means to select a subset of vertices or edges such that every edge or vertex is adjacent or incident to at least one element in the subset. For example, a vertex cover of a graph is a set of vertices that touches every edge of the graph. A minimum vertex cover is a vertex cover with the smallest possible size. Similarly, an edge cover of a graph is a set of edges that touches every vertex of the graph. A minimum edge cover is an edge cover with the smallest possible size.



  • Coloring a graph means to assign a color to each vertex or edge such that no two adjacent or incident elements have the same color. For example, a vertex coloring of a graph is a way of coloring the vertices such that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. The chromatic number of a graph is the minimum number of colors needed for a vertex coloring. Similarly, an edge coloring of a graph is a way of coloring the edges such that no two incident edges have the same color. The chromatic index of a graph is the minimum number of colors needed for an edge coloring.



  • Matching a graph means to select a subset of edges such that no two edges share the same vertex. For example, a matching of a graph is a set of edges that do not have any common vertices. A maximum matching is a matching with the largest possible size. A perfect matching is a matching that covers all the vertices of the graph.



Examples of Graph Applications




Graphs are widely used to model various phenomena and problems in different domains. Here are some examples of graph applications:


  • In computer science, graphs can be used to represent networks of communication, data organization, computational devices, the flow of computation, etc. For example, the internet is a huge graph of computers and routers connected by links. Graph algorithms can be used to find the shortest path between two nodes, the maximum flow in a network, the minimum spanning tree of a network, etc.



  • In social sciences, graphs can be used to represent social networks of people or groups, such as friendship, collaboration, influence, etc. For example, Facebook is a graph of users and their friends. Graph analysis can be used to find the most influential or popular people in a network, the communities or clusters in a network, the spread of information or diseases in a network, etc.



  • In chemistry and physics, graphs can be used to represent the structure of molecules or atoms, such as bonds, valence, orbitals, etc. For example, benzene is a graph of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms connected by single and double bonds. Graph properties can be used to study the stability, reactivity, symmetry, etc. of molecules or atoms.



  • In mathematics and logic, graphs can be used to represent abstract concepts or structures, such as sets, relations, functions, proofs, etc. For example, a Venn diagram is a graph of sets and their intersections. Graph theory can be used to study the properties and patterns of these concepts or structures.



Conclusion




In this article, you have learned the basics of graph theory, such as the types of graphs, their properties, trees, graph traversability, and the concepts of coverings, coloring, and matching. You have also learned how to use graphs to solve problems and analyze data in various domains. Graph theory is a rich and fascinating field of mathematics that has many applications and challenges.


If you want to learn more about graph theory, you can download free PDF tutorials from Tutorials Point, which provide a clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of graph theory. You can also explore other online resources or books on graph theory to deepen your knowledge and skills.


We hope you enjoyed this article and found it useful. Thank you for reading!


Graph Theory Applications




Graph theory has many practical and theoretical applications in various fields. Here are some examples of graph theory applications:


  • In computer science, graphs can be used to represent networks of communication, data organization, computational devices, the flow of computation, etc. For example, the internet is a huge graph of computers and routers connected by links. Graph algorithms can be used to find the shortest path between two nodes, the maximum flow in a network, the minimum spanning tree of a network, etc.



  • In social sciences, graphs can be used to represent social networks of people or groups, such as friendship, collaboration, influence, etc. For example, Facebook is a graph of users and their friends. Graph analysis can be used to find the most influential or popular people in a network, the communities or clusters in a network, the spread of information or diseases in a network, etc.



  • In chemistry and physics, graphs can be used to represent the structure of molecules or atoms, such as bonds, valence, orbitals, etc. For example, benzene is a graph of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms connected by single and double bonds. Graph properties can be used to study the stability, reactivity, symmetry, etc. of molecules or atoms.



  • In mathematics and logic, graphs can be used to represent abstract concepts or structures, such as sets, relations, functions, proofs, etc. For example, a Venn diagram is a graph of sets and their intersections. Graph theory can be used to study the properties and patterns of these concepts or structures.



  • In operations research and optimization, graphs can be used to model various problems that involve finding the best way to accomplish a task or achieve a goal. For example, the traveling salesman problem is a problem of finding the shortest route that visits every city in a given list exactly once and returns to the starting point. Graph theory can be used to formulate and solve this problem.



  • In biology and ecology, graphs can be used to represent the interactions among different species or organisms, such as predation, competition, symbiosis, etc. For example, a food web is a graph that shows who eats whom in an ecosystem. Graph theory can be used to analyze the stability and diversity of an ecosystem.



Conclusion




In this article, you have learned the basics of graph theory, such as the types of graphs, their properties, trees, graph traversability, and the concepts of coverings, coloring, and matching. You have also learned how to use graphs to solve problems and analyze data in various domains. Graph theory is a rich and fascinating field of mathematics that has many applications and challenges.


If you want to learn more about graph theory, you can download free PDF tutorials from Tutorials Point, which provide a clear and concise introduction to the fundamentals of graph theory. You can also explore other online resources or books on graph theory to deepen your knowledge and skills.


We hope you enjoyed this article and found it useful. Thank you for reading! d282676c82


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