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Cervidae is a family of hoofed ruminant mammals in the order Artiodactyla. A member of this family is called a deer or a cervid. They are widespread throughout North and South America, Europe, and Asia, and are found in a wide variety of biomes. Cervids range in size from the 60 cm (24 in) long and 32 cm (13 in) tall pudú to the 3.4 m (11.2 ft) long and 3.4 m (11.2 ft) tall moose. Most species do not have population estimates, though the roe deer has a population size of approximately 15 million, while several are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 200. One species, Père David's deer, is extinct in the wild, and one, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the cervid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN Red List for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "".

All interstate and intrastate movements of cervids in New York must first have a permit issued by the Department. To acquire a movement permit you must apply at least 10 business days prior to the desired move date. The application must include the origin herd number and premise identification number, and the destination herd number and premise identification number. Contact the Division of Animal Industry for more information on permitting.

The Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH) registers and inspects all Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) susceptible farmed (captive) cervid facilities, regardless of the type of operation -hobby, breeding or hunting. CWD-susceptible species include: white-tailed deer, elk, red deer, sika, Japanese deer, spotted deer, mule deer, reindeer, wapiti, moose and hybrids of these species.

The second, unique form of ID may be another ear tag, an electronic implant, a flank or ear tattoo, or the Indiana cervid herd tag. Current Indiana cervid herd tags and NAEBA ear tags are classified as "unique" secondary IDs.

Cervids that are kept temporarily (transient animals) must also be documented. Transient animals include bottle-fed fawns, animals brought in for breeding, and any animal that is bought and sold that does not enter the owner's herd. A cervid producer buying and selling deer that do not commingle with the herd, are also required to keep the above records for deer movement.

BOAH veterinarians are available to teach cervid owners how to collect CWD samples. If you would like training to be a CWD certified collector, contact Dr. Shelly Chavis at: or 260-450-2139.

A person who raises farmed cervidae (deer or elk) in Minnesota must be registered with the Board of Animal Health and meet all the requirements specified in Minnesota Statutes 32.153, 35.155 and Minnesota rules 1721.0370 to 1721.04.

To register a farmed cervidae herd, the owner must submit a registration application and inventory report to the Board of Animal Health along with a check for the annual inspection fee. As of July 1, 2019, the fee is $500 for producers that manage their herd for profit or monetary gain, engage in transaction or exchanges for consideration, sell the ability to shoot animals in the herd, or if the herd consists of more than one species. The fee is $250 for all other herds.

Before digging, request a location check from Gopher State One Call at 800-252-1166 to find any power, pipe, or communications lines buried under your chosen site. Carcasses must be buried deep enough to prevent scavengers from digging up and removing the carcass from the disposal site. Carcasses should be buried within an enclosure to prevent contact with wild cervids.

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect many mammals, including members of the cervidae family. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. It can be transmitted between livestock, humans, and other animals. The disease is spread through respiratory and oral secretions from infected animals.

The Board of Animal Health administers a voluntary tuberculosis accreditation program for farmed cervidae herds. To be awarded tuberculosis accredited status, a herd must be found negative on two consecutive whole herd tuberculosis tests conducted nine to fifteen months apart. If your cervidae herd has contact with cattle, bison, or goats on your farm, then these animals must also be tuberculosis tested to receive accredited status for your herd. To maintain this status, whole herd tuberculosis tests must be conducted every 36 months.

The Board of Animal Health administers a voluntary brucellosis certification program for farmed cervidae herds. To be awarded brucellosis certified status, a herd must be found negative on two consecutive whole herd brucellosis tests conducted nine to fifteen months apart. If your cervidae herd has contact with cattle or bison on your farm, then these animals must also be brucellosis tested to receive certified status for your herd. To maintain this status, whole herd brucellosis tests must be conducted every 36 months.

The neuropathology of affected cervids includes spongiform degeneration, neuronal loss, gliosis, and accumulation of PrPCWD (cervid PrPSc) in the form of aggregates [3, 4, 11]. Variation in the disease presentation between cervids, including survival period, distribution of brain lesions and PrPCWD properties occur in concert with different prion strains [12,13,14,15]. Prion strains are reproducible biological information encoded in specific PrPCWD conformers that are replicated by the templated-misfolding of the host PrPC [16,17,18]. While the transmission of a prion strain between hosts sharing similar PrPC is more efficient given the compatibility of selected strain-specific PrPSc conformers, transmission between hosts species expressing different PrPC primary structures is relatively inefficient and can introduce permanent conformational modifications resulting in the emergence of strains with novel properties [14, 19,20,21]. Alternatively, a strain can be transmitted back and forth between two species expressing various PrPC amino acid differences and remain unaltered informationally [22,23,24]. Strain selection from a host co-infected with multiple strains can also occur following transmission between species expressing different PrPC molecules [12, 25]. In addition, some tissues may show differential susceptibility for some strains compared to the brain (e.g. spleen) [26].

The transmission cycle of CWD in wild and captive cervids also involves the propagation of prion strains within and between various host species expressing distinct PrPC primary structures [12, 27, 28]. As CWD outbreaks become enzootic in cervid populations, circulating CWD strains must adapt to the shifting PrPC landscape that each new host provides which might result in novel strain emergence [13, 14, 21, 29]. These shifts in the prion replication substrate (PrPC) also occur at the population level, with allele frequencies of protective PrPC polymorphisms increasing in response to CWD in deer and elk [27, 30]. Here, we review the current understanding of the CWD transmission cycle, pathogenesis, infection biology and infer from numerous bioassay studies the potential for transmission to other species, including humans.

The progression of CWD is less understood in wild free-ranging cervids given its direct relationship with the infectious dose, the route of exposure, the prion strain and the host PRNP genotype. Under controlled conditions, the incubation period (i.e., time to onset of clinical signs) of experimentally infected, orally dosed white-tailed deer, mule deer and reindeer expressing different PrPC ranged between 1.5 and 6 years post-exposure [13, 31,32,33]. Similarly in elk, differences in incubation period were observed to range between 1.8 to 5.2 years depending on the elk PRNP genotype [34,35,36]. During the asymptomatic period, both captive and wild infected cervids contribute to the spread of CWD as they accumulate considerable amounts of prion infectivity throughout the body, which is shed through secretions and excretions into the environment [6, 37, 38].

The age range documented for cervids infected with CWD in captivity is fairly similar to that described for free-ranging animals [39, 40]. However, depending on the historical CWD prevalence and given the social nature of cervids it is possible to find pre-clinical CWD positive fawns (

The prevalence of CWD in wild cervids also varies by sex. In CWD enzootic areas the incidence of infection is much higher in males than females [44, 48, 49]. Considering that no differences in susceptibility have been detected between captive male and female deer [3, 39, 40, 50, 51], the higher prevalence in free ranging males may be attributable to differences in behavior, particularly during the breeding season when males roam widely and interact with other males more avidly, increase the risk of contact with contaminated environments and infected animals [52, 53].

The clinical progression and signs of CWD in both captive and experimentally infected cervids vary within and between species [3, 13, 31]. A brief summary is included in Table 1. Initial clinical features are often subtle and transitory [13]. The most prominent clinical features include behavioral alterations and progressive deterioration of body condition (i.e., weight loss) that worsen over the course of weeks to months [54]. Altered postures with lowered head and ears, arching of the back and ataxia can also be displayed [13, 31, 42]. Advanced clinical disease may involve odontoprisis, polydipsia, polyuria, difficulty swallowing, regurgitation of rumen contents and excessive salivation with drooling. Following recumbency, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, or hypothermia during the winter season (in wild affected animals) are the most likely causes of death [42]. Compared to deer, CWD-affected elk can present with nervousness and hyperesthesia and are more likely to display motor disturbances but less likely to develop polydipsia [54]. 59ce067264


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