PROMETHEUS was the Titan god of forethought and crafty counsel who was given the task of moulding mankind out of clay. His attempts to better the lives of his creation brought him into conflict with Zeus. Firstly he tricked the gods out of the best portion of the sacrificial feast, acquiring the meat for the feasting of man. Then, when Zeus withheld fire, he stole it from heaven and delivered it to mortal kind hidden inside a fennel-stalk. As punishment for these rebellious acts, Zeus ordered the creation of Pandora (the first woman) as a means to deliver misfortune into the house of man, or as a way to cheat mankind of the company of the good spirits. Prometheus meanwhile, was arrested and bound to a stake on Mount Kaukasos (Caucasus) where an eagle was set to feed upon his ever-regenerating liver (or, some say, heart). Generations later the great hero Herakles (Heracles) came along and released the old Titan from his torture.
Aeschylus, in his trilogy Prometheus, added various new features to it, for, according to him, Prometheus himself is an immortal god, the friend of the human race, the giver of fire, the inventor of the useful arts, an omniscient seer, an heroic sufferer, who is overcome by the superior power of Zeus, but will not bend his inflexible mind. Although he himself belonged to the Titans, he is nevertheless represented as having assisted Zeus against the Titans (Prom. 218), and he is further said to have opened the head of Zeus when the latter gave birth to Athena (Apollod. i. 3. § 6). But when Zeus succeeded to the kingdom of heaven, and wanted to extirpate the whole race of man, the place of which he proposed to give to quite a new race of beings, Prometheus prevented the execution of the scheme, and saved the human race from destruction (Prom. 228, 233). He deprived them of their knowledge of the future, and gave them hope instead (248, &c.). He further taught them the use of fire, made them acquainted with architecture, astronomy, mathematics, the art of writing, the treatment of domestic animals, navigation, medicine, the art of prophecy, working in metal, and all the other arts (252, 445, &c., 480, &c.). But, as in all these things he had acted contrary to the will of Zeus, the latter ordered Hephaestus to chain him to a rock in Scythia, which was done in the presence of Cratos and Bia, two ministers of Zeus. In Scythia he was visited by the Oceanides; Io also came to him, and he foretold her the wanderings and sufferings which were yet in store for her, as well as her final relief (703, &c.). Hermes then likewise appears, and desires him to make known a prophecy which was of great importance to Zeus, for Prometheus knew that by a certain woman Zeus would beget a son, who was to dethrone his father, and Zeus wanted to have a more accurate knowledge of this decree of fate. But Prometheus steadfastly refused to reveal the decree of fate, whereupon Zeus, by a thunderbolt, sent Prometheus, together with the rock to which he was chained, into Tartarus (Horat. Carm. ii. 18, 35). After the lapse of a long time, Prometheus returned to the upper world, to endure a fresh course of suffering, for he was now fastened to mount Caucasus, and tormented by an eagle, which every day, or every third day, devoured his liver, which was restored again in the night (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1247, &c. iii. 853; Strab. xv. p. 688 ; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 3; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15; Aeschyl. Prom. 1015, &c.). This state of suffering was to last until some other god, of his own accord, should take his place, and descend into Tartarus for him (Prom. 1025). This came to pass when Cheiron, who had been incurably wounded by an arrow of Heracles, desired to go into Hades; and Zeus allowed him to supply the place of Prometheus (Apollod. ii. 5. § 4; comp. Cheiron). According to others, however, Zeus himself delivered Prometheus, when at length the Titan was prevailed upon to reveal to Zeus the decree of fate, that, if he should become by Thetis the either of a son, that son should deprive him of the sovereignty. (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42 ; Apollod. iii. 13. § 5; Hygin. Fab. 54; comp. Aeschyl. Prom. 167, &c. 376.)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 4. 4 :"At Panopeus [in Phokis (Phocis)] . . . [in a] ravine there lie two stones, each of which is big enough to fill a cart. They have the colour of clay, not earthly clay, but such as would be found in a ravine or sandy torrent, and they smell very like the skin of a man. They say that these are remains of the clay out of which the whole race of man was fashioned by Prometheus."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 4. 4 :"At Panopeus [in Phokis] there is by the roadside a small building of unburnt brick, in which is an image of Pentelic marble, said by some to be Asklepios (Asclepius), by others Prometheus. The latter produce evidence of their contention. At the ravine there lie two stones, each of which is big enough to fill a cart. They have the colour of clay, not earthly clay, but such as would be found in a ravine or sandy torrent, and they smell very like the skin of a man. They say that these are remains of the clay out of which the whole race of man was fashioned by Prometheus."
Baguettes took me the longest to master. Perhaps it's because my bread baking adventure started (many years ago) right after I baked my second loaf of no-knead bread and I lacked the necessary experience. So many factors here that can affect how your baguette will look and taste.
This baguette recipe uses baker's yeast and is influenced by the method used by Anis Bouabsa, winner of the 2008 Best Baguette in Paris contest. In an interview, Anis mentioned using baguette dough that has 75% hydration (meaning the ratio of water to flour), very little yeast, hardly kneaded, folded three times in one hour then placed in the fridge for 21 hours. He also added that baguettes are not fully risen when placed in the oven, it is the wet dough and the very, very hot oven (480F) that make baguettes get the volume.
I just want to contribute to the praise for this baguette process developed and described by Victor. This is the second time I have tried to make a baguette in the past few years. I am not a bread maker, but I crave baguettes, and I have just had to buy then from local grocers. From my last attempt at making one from scratch, which resulted in a dense, spongy crumb, I had to find a new process. I am seeking the airy crumb shown in the photo. This blog showed up in my search results. I read through several recipes on different sites, and this one just stood out. First, it is written from the heart. Next, it covers the attention to preparation, and ingredients, and then the process. While following the recipe, I was not really sure of what I was doing. I was not kneading the bread much, just squishing the ingredients together. In the fridge, the dough was not doubling in size, yet I stayed the course. After 22 or so hours, I ended up with these wimpy looking baguette rolls that I scored at the top before sliding them into the oven. In 10 minutes, I turned on the oven light and found them blossoming and resembling the robust baguettes I see in the photo. After pulling them out hot, the crust was a bit tough to slice, but wonderfully crispy to bite into and chew on. Finally, an entire house of family guests, including the proprietor of a well-regarded local restaurant, were singing praises of this baguette, going back to slice off another piece, each for themselves, and others for every niece and nephew. Thank you for sharing this. I felt like a bread hero, and I will be trying this again soon.
Yes, there is. I've made baguettes in as little as 4-5 hours, can't remember the exact timing but I started around noon-ish and had them on the table by 5-ish or so. There are many, many ways to make bread/baguettes. There isn't a single 'best' way. Take a look at my no-knead bread post, it's one example of making (good tasting) bread fast. Some pointers - higher fermentation temp, higher water temp, more yeast will result in faster fermentation/proofing. Finally, skip S&Fs and knead the dough in a stand mixer for 8-10 minutes to develop gluten quickly. You won't the same crumb but it will be quick.
I usually do the stretch and fold, but as part of a test this time, I tried kneading the dough for a lot longer, then letting it rest for 5 hours straight at room temperature. Compared to my regular dough, I noticed:- it didn't rise in volume as much as usual even after 5 hours- the dough seemed more sticky than usual- the shaped baguette (before going in the oven) had a more flattened look- finished baguette had great moist, glossy, airy crumb along the middle, but rest was quite dense
I've been trying to figure out what happened and my best guesses are:- too much kneading in relation to the proofing time making the gluten too strong for the gas to form enough air pockets- too high hydration?- not enough proofing, again in relation to the amount of kneading and gluten strength formed in the process
Petar, gluten development is a function of kneading and time. Stretching and folding strengthen the dough and also promotes gluten development. Your dough should have a very strong gluten structure by the end of fermentation. If the dough goes flat before you stick it in the oven, most likely it's over-fermented and/or over-proofed. There could be something else, of course, but it's hard for me to say without knowing more details at each step.
Hi Dana, kneading is a fast way to develop gluten and, unfortunately, kill the texture. S&F and time is another way to get gluten developed without ruining the texture. Kneading will result in a more of a supermarket baguette, with tiny holes and crumbly texture.
ILLUSTRATIONSThe sheaves are beaten with flails . . . . Frontispiece "Cherokee" - my father's place . . . . 4Bonaparte . . . . 7Each field has a small flood-gate called a "trunk" . . . . 9Marcus began work on the breaks . . . . 10"The girls shuffled the rice about with their feet until it was clayed" . . . . 11Near the bridge two negro women are fishing . . . . . 14A request from Wishy's mother, Annette, for something to stop bleeding . . . . 17Green thought it was folly and fussiness . . . . 27She picked her usual thirty-five pounds alone . . . . 31To-day the hands are "toting" the rice into the flats . . . . 34"You see a stack of rice approaching, and you perceive a pair of legs, or a skirt, as the case may be, peeping from beneath" . . . . 35Chloe . . . . 40Front porch - Casa Bianca . . . . 42Elihu was a splendid boatman . . . . 51My little brown maid Patty is a new acquisition and a great comfort, for she is very bright . . . . 53The roughness and plainness of the pineland house . . . . 54The yearly pow-wow at Casa Bianca . . . . 60"Four young girls who are splendid workers" . . . . 62She promised not to war any more . . . . 65"Myself, ma'am, bin most stupid" . . . . . 66A rice field "flowed" . . . . 72The hoe they consider purely a feminine implement . . . . 79The back steps to the pineland house . . . . 84"A very large black hat" . . . . 87Her husband brought her in an ox cart . . . . 93"Old Maum Mary came to bring me a present of sweet potatoes" . . . . 98"Pa dey een 'e baid" . . . . 102One or two hands in the barn-yard . . . . 107A corner of Casa Bianca . . . . . 109 Page xii"Chaney" . . . . 112Five children asked me to let them "hunt tetta" . . . . 120"It is tied into sheaves, which the negroes do very skilfully, with a wisp of the rice itself" . . . . 122"The field with its picturesque workers" . . . . 124"The Ferry" . . . . 132His wife was very stirring . . . . 136Day after day I met Judy coming out of her patch . . . . 138"Old Florinda, the plantation nurse" . . . . 144"Miss Patience, le' me len' yer de money" . . . . 150"Jus' shinin' um up wid de knife-brick" . . . . 159Aphrodite spread a quilt and deposited the party upon it . . . . 164"Then he could talk a-plenty" . . . . 171Chloe is devoted to the chicks - feeds them every two hours . . . . 174Prince Frederick's Pee Dee . . . . 178Prince George Winyah . . . . 180"Eh, eh, I yere say yu cry 'bout chicken" . . . . 187The summer kitchen at Cherokee . . . . 188The winter kitchen at Cherokee . . . . 189The string of excited children . . . . 190I got Chloe off to make a visit to her daughter . . . . 198I really do not miss ice, now that my little brown jug is swung in the well . . . . 200Patty came in . . . . 210"Plat eye!" . . . . 216Goliah cried and sobbed . . . . 225Had Eva to sow by hand a little of the inoculated seed . . . . 232Her little log cottage was as clean as possible . . . . 236The sacred spot with its heavy live oak shadows . . . . 242"I met Dab on the road" . . . . 249Cherokee steps . . . . 250The smoke-house at Cherokee for meat curing . . . . 260Sol's wife, Aphrodite, is a specimen of maternal health and vigor . . . . 262I saw a raft of very fine poplar logs being made . . . . 263Cypress trees . . . . 265She was a simple, faithful soul - always diligent . . . . 270Winnowing house for preparation of seed rice . . . . 272"Patty en Dab en me all bin a eat" . . . . 276Chloe began: "W'en I bin a small gal" . . . . 288I took Chloe to Casa Bianca to serve luncheon . . . . 299 Page xiii"I read tell de komfut kum to me" . . . . 309"Up kum Maum Mary wid de big cake een de wheelbarrer" . . . . 311Gibbie and the oxen . . . . 313In the field - sowing . . . . 317How to lay the breakfast table . . . . 321Joy unspeakable . . . . 326The church in Peaceville . . . . 331Chloe was a great success at the North . . . . 338My old summer home at Pawleys Island . . . . 349The roof of the house on Pawleys Island - from the sand-hills . . . . 352"En de 'omens mek answer en say: 'No, ma'am; we neber steal none' " . . . . 356"Dem all stan' outside de fence" . . . . 367Fanning and pounding rice for household use . . . . 375Pounding rice . . . . 376The rice-fields looked like a great lake . . . . 399Casa Bianca . . . . 422Rice-fields from the highlands . . . . 439"You see I didn't tell no lie" . . . . 442 Page 1A WOMAN RICE PLANTERCHAPTER ICHEROKEE, March 30,1903. 2b1af7f3a8